加拿大28开奖官网

残疾预防
来源:加拿大28开奖官网_加拿大28开奖官方-【全网唯一大品牌】 作者: admin 日期: 2008年12月25日 浏览:

第八章 残疾预防

第一节 残疾预防概述

一、残疾预防的概念

canjiyufangshizhizailejiezhicanyuanyindejichushang,jijicaiqugezhongyouxiaocuoshi、tujing,fangzhi、kongzhihuoyanchicanjidefasheng。

二、残疾预防的内容

canjiyufangzhuyaobaokuoyixianeirong:

(一)一级预防,即通过免疫接种、预防性咨询及指导、预防性保健、避免引发伤病的危险因素或危险源、实行健康的生活方式、提倡合理行为及精神卫生、安全防护照顾等措施,预防致残性伤害和残疾的发生。
(二)二级预防,即通过残疾早期筛查、定期健康检查、控制危险因素、改变不良生活方式、早期医疗干预、早期康复治疗等措施防止伤害后出现残疾。
(三)三级预防,即通过康复功能训练、假肢矫形器及辅助功能辅助器具使用、康复咨询、支持性医疗及护理、必要的矫形替代性及补偿性手术等措施,防止残疾后出现残障。

三、残疾预防的重要性与必要性

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第二节 残疾预防的主要方法

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一、视力残疾的预防

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二、听力残疾的预防

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妇女在妊娠期特别要防止各种病毒性传染病,慎重使用耳毒性药物。孕期避免接触X射线以及有毒性的化学物质,不做全身麻醉手术,不酗酒,不抽烟。
做好孕妇围产期卫生保健工作,预防难产、早产及分娩时新生儿缺氧、感染的产生。慎重使用助产器械,防止造成新生儿颅内损伤。

(er)houtianxingerlongdeyufang。

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tongshi,yaoyufangwaishangdengyiwaishiguzaochengerlongdeng。

三、小儿麻痹后遗症的预防

小儿麻痹症又叫脊髓灰质炎,是一种由脊髓灰质炎病毒引起的急性传染病。该病毒由消化道及呼吸道进入人体后主要侵犯脊髓前角中运动神经细胞,导致肌肉弛缓性麻痹,造成瘫痪。长期瘫痪后部分肌肉、骨骼和皮下组织都发生萎缩,肢体变细,无力,不能站立和行走,医学上称为“软瘫”。由于发病年龄以出生后6个月到3岁以内为多见,故又称“小儿麻痹症”或“小儿瘫”。
发病后经急性期、瘫痪前期、瘫痪期、恢复期,有相当一部分患儿半年到一年半后肢体仍不能恢复正常功能,病程进入后遗症期,造成终身残疾,称小儿麻痹后遗症。
及时、正确地给孩子服用脊髓灰质糖丸疫苗是最简单易行、最有效的措施。
小儿麻痹症免疫预防可分为常规免疫和强化免疫。常规免疫: 出生后满二足月开始,连服三次,每次间隔28天以上,12月龄内完成为“基础免疫”;4岁时再复服一次,一些地区在 15~2岁间增服一次,甚至在出生后即服一次称为“零次服苗”。强化免疫: 国内外实践证明,单一式的常规免疫,消灭脊髓灰质炎总是有困难的。强化免疫是在很短时间内,在一个大范围地区内对适当年龄组的所有儿童实施普遍接种,能迅速有效地阻断脊髓灰质炎病毒的传播。强化免疫不是查漏补种,而是消灭脊髓灰质炎的重要措施之一。

四、智力残疾的预防

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  zhilicanjizhicanyinsufuza,zhijinshangyou40%yinsubuming。yizhidechangjianzhicanyinsuyouruxiajizhong:

1先天因素和妊、产期因素。在智力残疾中有2073%是由此类因素引起的。
遗传因素。染色体异常,临床常见于先天愚型;单基因遗传病,如先天性甲状腺功能减退症、苯丙酮尿症;多基因遗传病,如不能生存的无脑儿到隐性脊柱裂均属此类;母子基因不合而引起胎儿脑组织损伤。
宫内感染因素。常见的妊娠头三个月内孕妇感染风疹、巨细胞病毒、弓形体病、梅毒等,不仅可致胎儿智力残疾,还可致畸形。
孕妇营养不良或者缺碘,易生出早产儿,胎儿在宫内发育不良。
产伤造成脑损伤、颅内出血,亦可致智力残疾。

2脑系统疾患因素。约有 1568%的智力残疾是由脑系统疾患引起的。
新生儿化脓性脑膜炎,如果贻误了治疗时间,会留有严重的后遗症,造成智力残疾。
流行性乙型脑炎。无论是儿童还是成年人患流行性乙型脑炎后都易留下较严重的后遗症,对智力影响严重。
结核性脑膜炎。儿童发病率高于成人,有严重后遗症: 脑积水、去大脑强直等都严重影响智力,是智力残疾的重要致残因素之一。
脑积水与颅缝早闭,都致智力残疾。
颅脑外伤,受伤的程度决定智力残疾的轻重。
脑血管意外,后果往往是偏瘫、痴呆等。

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已生过先天愚型儿、无脑儿或脊柱裂等畸形儿的孕妇。
在妊娠早期接触过大剂量的放射线、化学毒物、受到病毒感染或服过对胎儿有害的某类药物者。
某些慢性病、代谢病的孕妇,如糖尿病、甲状腺机能低下、肝炎、肾炎等。
夫妇一方为遗传病异常核型携带者。
原因不明的流产、早产史者,羊水过多者,近亲婚配者,以及医师发现可疑问题的孕妇。

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(yi)youshengyouyu。

加拿大28开奖官网1hunqianjianchaheyichuanzixun。

hunqianjianchaheyichuanzixunshizhizaijiehundengjizhiqiandeshentijianchaheyouguanwentidezixun,zheishiyoushengdediyibu。zaijingshenjibingfazuoqi,huanzhebunengzhengchanggongzuo、xuexi,shenghuowufazili,xianranbushiyijiehun、huaiyunshengyu。muqianrenweijingshenfenliezheng、zaokuangyiyuxingjingshenbing、pianzhixingjingshenbing、dianxianxingjingshenbingdengdouyouyichuanqingxiang,yichuanzixunshiyinggaigaosujiehunshengyuzhe。

2renshenbaojianyuyingyang。

renshenbaojianyuyingyangshibaozhangyoushengdetiaojian,yeshifangzhigezhongjibingdejichu。tongshihaiyingzhuyiyanfangganranxingjibingdefasheng,bingbaochilianghaodexinjing。

加拿大28开奖官网(er)congzhicanyuanyinjinxingyufang。

1jiaqiangxinlizixun,gaishanshenghuohuanjing。

xinlizixunshizhiduijiankanghuoshenghuoshangchuyunijinghuocunzaiwentizhe,congxinliweishengzhishishangjiyubangzhuhezhidao。tongguoxinliweishengjiaoyu,tigaoxinliweishengshuiping,jinxinghelidexinlizixunhexinlizhidao,jiukenengshichanshengxinggezhangai、shenjingzheng、xinlijibinghefanyingxingjingshenbingdejihuidadajianshao。tongguoxinlizixun、zhidao,ketigaorenmendexinlijiankangsuzhi,peiyangyuduanlianwanzhengjiankangderenge。

改善人的外界自然环境。如注意改善居住环境,防止噪音和环境的污染,为人们的生活居住环境创造良好的条件。
加拿大28开奖官网 加强精神文明加拿大28开奖官网,创造良好的社会环境。在我国,优越的社会制度,优良的传统美德,为人们建立和睦融洽的社会关系创造了条件。要互爱、互助、互相谦让、互相支持,特别是家庭内部,更要创造和谐、轻松的气氛,互相关心,互相体贴,使生活美满、幸福。创造宽松的工作、学习环境,减少或消除不良的刺激,防止心理创伤,预防精神病发生。

2jiaqiangyiliaobaojianjianhu。

加拿大28开奖官网shixingjihuamianyi,yufanggezhongjibing;duijiazuzhongyoujingshenbingzhedehuoyouyichuanqingxiangzhezuodingqitijianjixinlizixun,duikenengdaozhijingshenbingdebuliangshengchanhuoshenghuohuanjingyaojinxinggaishan;jiaoyugerenyaoduijingshenbingxinlicaiquyufangcuoshi,ruyaoxinxionghuoda、qingxuleguan、shenghuoyouguilvdeng。

加拿大28开奖官网3jijifangzhijingshenbingjinaobuwaishangheqitanaobing。

首先,对于精神病要早期发现、早期诊断、早期治疗。特别是发病率高,又以慢性起病最多的精神分裂症,必须抓“三早”和攻“三关”。“三关”,即病因关、早期诊断关、根治关。这是防止精神病致残的重要环节,也即一级预防。
加拿大28开奖官网 其次,预防各种颅脑损伤和其他脑病,也是预防精神残疾的一个重要方面。

4jizaozhiliaochangjiandejingshenbing,fangzhibingqingfazhan。

加拿大28开奖官网ruguofaxianjingshenbingrenjinrufabingchuqi,jiuyaoshixingerjiyufang,jifangzhijingshenbingdefazhan。juticuoshishizaoqiquedingzhenduan,jishijinxingzhengquehelidezhiliao,duijingshenshangyouyichangbianhuaderen,tebieshiduixinggehexinlishangyouquexianderen,yaozhongshiqijingshenjiankangzhuangkuang,ruyoujingshenshichang、keyi,yingjishiquanqidaoyiyuanjiancha,jishizhiliao,fangzhibingqingfazhan。jingshenjibingjishifaxian,jishizhiliao,dabufenkeyizhiyu。danjibingdefufa,shidangqianjingshenyixuemianlindezuizhongyaodewentizhiyi。weifangzhifufa,shouxianyaojinxingxitongde、chedideyaowuzhiliao,zhiyuhouyaoweichizhiliaoshunian,anshifucha。qiciyaopeihexinlizhiliao,bayaowu、xinlihehuanjingsangefangmianjieheqilai,cainengbafufajiangdidaozuidixiandu。

5zuohaojingshencanjidesanjiyufanggongzuo。

加拿大28开奖官网zheishizhiduimanxingjingshenbinghuanzhe、nanyikongzhifufadejingshenbingren,fangzhijingshenshuaitui,baochishehuigongneng,yufangzaochengjingshencanji。

第三节 残疾人组织在残疾预防工作中的职责

加拿大28开奖官网canjiyufanggongzuojishiweishengjiankangshiyedeyigezuchengbufen,yeshicanjirengongzuobukehuoquedeyigefangmian。gejicanjirenzuzhiyouqishijicengcanjirenzuzhi(canjirenxiehui、xiaozu),yaorenzhenzuohaocanjiyufangzhishipujihexiezhuxiangguanbumenzuohaojianada28kaijiangguanwanggongzuo。

(一)各级残联、残疾人协会(小组)要把残疾预防当做一项经常性的工作来抓,利用广播、电视、报刊以及互联网络等多种媒体,面向社会公众进行残疾预防的方针政策、法律法规、科学知识等方面的宣传、普及教育工作。
(二)通过“爱耳日”、“爱眼日”、“世界精神卫生日”、“全国助残日”等集中的社会活动,开展专题性的残疾预防宣传工作。
(三)协助卫生、计划生育、劳动、妇联、红十字会等相关部门,做好针对致残原因、对象和人群的残疾预防重点知识普及工作。
(四)配合相关部门和机构,做好实施残疾预防的组织、人员培训及其他加拿大28开奖官网工作。

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